Գլխավոր էջ Graphic Design: The New Basics: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded

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Our bestselling introduction to graphic design is now available in a revised and updated edition. In Graphic Design: The New Basics, bestselling author Ellen Lupton (Thinking with Type, Type on Screen) and design educator Jennifer Cole Phillips explain the key concepts of visual language that inform any work of design, from logo or letterhead to a complex website. Through visual demonstrations and concise commentary, students and professionals explore the formal elements of twodimensional design, such as point, line, plane, scale, hierarchy, layers, and transparency.

This revised edition replaces sixty-four pages of the original publication with new content, including new chapters on visualizing data, typography, modes of representation, and Gestalt principles, and adds sixteen pages of new student and professional work covering such topics as working with grids and designing with color.
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2015
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2 Rev Upd
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Princeton Architectural Press
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english
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264
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1616893257
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GRAPHIC DESIGN

THE NEW BASICS
SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND EXPANDED

ELLEN LUPTON AND JENNIFER COLE PHILLIPS

Princeton Architectural Press, New York and
Maryland Institute College of Art, Baltimore

Published by
Princeton Architectural Press
37 East Seventh Street
New York, New York 10003

For Maryland Institute College of Art

Visit our website at www.papress.com.

Contributing Faculty
Ken Barber
Kristian Bjørnard
Kimberly Bost
Jeremy Botts
Corinne Botz
Bernard Canniffe
Nancy Froehlich
Brockett Horne
Tal Leming
Ellen Lupton
Al Maskeroni
Sandra Maxa
Ryan McCabe
Abbott Miller
Kiel Mutschelknaus
Jennifer Cole Phillips
James Ravel
Zvezdana Stojmirovic
Nolen Strals
Mike Weikert
Bruce Willen
Yeohyun Ahn

© 2008, 2015 Princeton Architectural Press
All rights reserved
No part of this book may be used or
reproduced in any manner without written
permission from the publisher, except in
the context of reviews.
Every reasonable attempt has been made
to identify owners of copyright. Errors or
omissions will be corrected in subsequent
editions.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Lupton, Ellen, author.
Graphic design : the new basics / Ellen Lupton and
Jennifer Cole Phillips. — Second Edition, Revised and
Expanded.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-61689-325-5 (hardcover : alk. paper)
ISBN 978-1-61689-332-3 (paperback : alk. paper)
ISBN 978-1-61689-455-9 (epub, mobi)
1. Graphic arts. I. Phillips, Jennifer C., 1960– author.
II. Title.
NC997.L87 2015
741.6—dc23
2014046286

Book Design
Ellen Lupton and Jennifer Cole Phillips

Visiting Artists
Marian Bantjes
Nicholas Blechman
Alicia Cheng
Peter Cho
Malcolm Grear
David Plunkert
C. E. B. Reas
Paul Sahre
Jan van Toorn
Rick Valicenti
For Princeton Architectural Press
Editors
Clare Jacobson and Nicola Brower
Special thanks to
Janet Behning, Erin Cain, Megan Carey,
Carina Cha, Andrea Chlad, Tom Cho,
Barbara Darko, Benjamin English,
Russell Fernandez, Jan Cigliano Hartman,
Jan Haux, Mia Johnson, Diane Levinson,
Jennifer Lippert,;  Katharine Myers,
Jaime Nelson, Rob Shaeffer, Sara Stemen,
Marielle Suba, Kaymar Thomas, Paul Wagner,
Joseph Weston, and Janet Wong of Princeton
Architectural Press
—Kevin C. Lippert, publisher

Contents

6 Foreword
8 Back to the Bauhaus
Ellen Lupton

10 Beyond the Basics
Jennifer Cole Phillips

12

Formstorming

32

Point, Line, Plane

48

Rhythm and Balance

60

Scale

68

Texture

80

Color

98

Gestalt Principles

116

Framing

128

Hierarchy

140

Layers

154

Transparency

166

Modularity

186

Grid

200

Pattern

214

Diagram

232

Time and Motion

248

Rules and Randomness

260 Bibliography
262 Index

Foreword

Ellen Lupton and Jennifer Cole Phillips

This book is a guide to visual formmaking, showing designers how
to build richness and complexity
around simple relationships.
We created the first edition of this
book in 2008 because we didn’t
see anything quite like it for today’s
students and young designers:
a concise, contemporary guide
to two-dimensional design. Since
its release, Graphic Design: The
New Basics has reached an
enthusiastic audience around the
world. Everywhere we go, we meet
educators and young designers
who have used the book and learned
something from it.
What’s new in this volume?
You will find updated and expanded
content throughout the book,
reflecting new ideas emerging in
our classrooms at Maryland Institute
College of Art (MICA). The most
important addition to this volume,
however, is an entirely new opening
chapter devoted to “formstorming,”
a term originated by Jennifer Cole
Phillips. Formstorming is a set of
structured techniques for generating
visual solutions to graphic design
challenges. We open the book with
this chapter in order to plunge
our readers directly into the act of
visual invention.

As educators with decades of
combined experience in graduate and
undergraduate teaching, we have
witnessed the design world change
and change again in response to
new technologies. When we were
students ourselves in the 1980s,
classic books such as Armin
Hofmann’s Graphic Design Manual
(published in 1965) had begun to lose
their relevance within the restless and
shifting design scene. Postmodernism
was on the rise, and abstract design
exercises seemed out of step with the
interest at that time in appropriation
and historicism.
During the 1990s, design
educators became caught in the
pressure to teach (and learn)
software, and many of us struggled
to balance technical skills with
visual and critical thinking. Form
sometimes got lost along the
way, as design methodologies
moved away from universal visual
concepts toward a more anthropological understanding of design
as a constantly changing flow of
cultural sensibilities.
This book addresses the gap
between software and visual thinking.
By focusing on form, we have reembraced the pioneering work of
modernist design educators, from
Josef Albers and László Moholy-Nagy
at the Bauhaus to Armin Hofmann
and some of our own great teachers,
including Malcolm Grear.

We initiated this project when
we noticed that our students
were not at ease building concepts
abstractly. They were adept at
working and reworking pop-culture
vocabularies, but they were less
comfortable manipulating scale,
rhythm, color, hierarchy, grids, and
diagrammatic relationships.
This is a book for students and
emerging designers, and it is
illustrated primarily with student
work, produced within graduate
and undergraduate design studios.
Our school, MICA, has been our
laboratory. Numerous faculty and
scores of students participated
in our brave experiment. The work
shown on these pages is varied
and diverse, reflecting an organic
range of skill levels and sensibilities.
Unless otherwise noted, all the
student examples were generated
in the context of MICA’s courses; a
few projects originate from schools
we visited or where our own
graduate alumni are teaching.

7 Foreword

Our student contributors come
from China, India, Japan, Korea,
Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Zimbabwe,
a wide range of US states, and
many other places. The book was
manufactured in China and published
with Princeton Architectural Press
in New York City. It was thus created
in a global context. The work presented within its pages is energized
by the diverse backgrounds of its
producers, whose creativity is shaped
by their cultural identities as well
as by their unique life experiences.
A common thread that draws all
these people together in one place
is design.
The majority of student work
featured here comes from the course
we teach together at MICA, the
Graphic Design MFA Studio. Our

MFA program’s first publishing
venture was the book D.I.Y.: Design
It Yourself (2006), directed at
general readers who want to use
design in their own lives. We have
published a series of other titles
since then, including Indie Publishing
(2009), Graphic Design Thinking
(2010), and Type on Screen (2014).
These books are researched and
produced under the aegis of MICA’s
Center for Design Thinking, an
umbrella for organizing the college’s
diverse efforts in the area of design
education research.
Complementing the student
work included in this book are
examples from contemporary
professional practice that
demonstrate visually rich design
approaches. Many of the designers

featured, including Marian Bantjes,
Alicia Cheng, Peter Cho, Malcolm
Grear, David Plunkert, C. E. B. Reas,
Paul Sahre, Rick Valicenti, and
Jan van Toorn, have worked with
our students as visiting artists
at MICA. Some conducted special
workshops, whose results are
included in this volume.
Graphic Design: The New Basics
lays out the elements of a visual
language whose forms are employed
by individuals, institutions, and
communities that are increasingly
connected in a global society.
We hope the book will inspire more
thought and creativity in the
years ahead.

Acknowledgments

The first edition of this book constituted
my degree project in the Doctorate in
Communication Design program at the
University of Baltimore. I thank my advisors,
Stuart Moulthrop, Sean Carton, and Amy
Pointer. I also thank my colleagues at MICA,
including Samuel Hoi, president; Ray Allen,
provost; Gwynne Keathley, vice provost
for research and graduate studies; Brockett
Horne, chair, Graphic Design BFA; and my
longtime friend and collaborator, Jennifer
Cole Phillips. Special thanks go to the
dozens of students who contributed work.
Editors Clare Jacobson, Nicola Brower,
and the team at Princeton Architectural
Press made the book real.
My family is an inspiration, especially
my parents Bill, Lauren, Mary Jane, and
Ken; my children Jay and Ruby; my sisters
Julia and Michelle; and my husband Abbott.

My contribution to this book is dedicated
to Malcolm Grear, mentor and friend,
who taught me to approach design from
the inside out, and instilled an appetite
for invention and formal rigor.
The culture at MICA is a joy in which
to work, thanks in large part to the vision and
support of our past president, Fred Lazarus;
our new president, Samuel Hoi; provost Ray
Allen; vice provost for research and graduate
studies Gwynne Keathley; and our talented
faculty colleagues. Deep respect and thanks
to our students for their commitment and
contributions. Heartfelt gratitude goes to my
friend and close collaborator, Ellen Lupton,
for raising the bar with grace and generosity.
I am thankful for the support of my
family and close friends, especially my
parents Ann and Jack; and my sisters
Lanie and Jodie.

Ellen Lupton

Jennifer Cole Phillips

Back to the Bauhaus

Ellen Lupton

The Bauhaus Legacy In the 1920s,
The idea of searching out a shared
faculty at the Bauhaus and other
framework in which to invent and
schools analyzed form in terms
organize visual content dates back
of basic geometric elements. They
to the origins of modern graphic
believed this language would
design. In the 1920s, institutions
be understandable to everyone,
such as the Bauhaus in Germany
grounded in the universal instrument
explored design as a universal,
of the eye.
perceptually based “language of
Bauhaus faculty pursued this
vision,” a concept that continues
idea from different points of view.
to shape design education today
Wassily Kandinsky called for
around the world.
the creation of a “dictionary of
This book reflects on that vital
elements” and a universal visual
tradition in light of profound shifts
in technology and global social life. “grammar” in his Bauhaus textbook
Point and Line to Plane. His
Whereas the Bauhaus promoted
colleague László Moholy-Nagy
rational solutions through planning
sought to uncover a rational
and standardization, designers
vocabulary ratified by a shared
and artists today are drawn to
society and a common humanity.
idiosyncrasy, customization, and
Courses taught by Josef Albers
sublime accidents as well as to
standards and norms. The modernist emphasized systematic thinking
over personal intuition, objectivity
preference for reduced, simplified
over emotion.
forms now coexists with a desire to
Albers and Moholy-Nagy forged
build systems that yield unexpected
the use of new media and new
results. Today, the impure, the
contaminated, and the hybrid hold as materials. They saw that art and
design were being transformed
much allure as forms that are sleek
by technology—photography,
and perfected. Visual thinkers often
film, and mass production. And yet
seek to spin out intricate results
from simple rules or concepts rather their ideas remained profoundly
humanistic, always asserting the role
than reduce an image or idea to its
of the individual over the absolute
simplest parts.
authority of any system or method.
Design, they argued, is never
reducible to its function or to a
technical description.

Since the 1940s, numerous
educators have refined and
expanded on the Bauhaus approach,
from Moholy-Nagy and Gyorgy
Kepes at the New Bauhaus in
Chicago; to Johannes Itten, Max
Bill, and Gui Bonsiepe at the Ulm
School in Germany; to Emil Ruder
and Armin Hofmann in Switzerland;
to the “new typographies” of
Wolfgang Weingart, Dan Friedman,
and Katherine McCoy in Switzerland
and the United States. Each of
these revolutionary educators
articulated structural approaches
to design from distinct and
original perspectives.
Some of them also engaged
in the postmodern rejection of
universal communication. According
to postmodernism, which emerged
in the 1960s, it is futile to look
for inherent meaning in an image
or object because people will
bring their own cultural biases and
personal experiences to the process
of interpretation. As postmodernism
itself became a dominant ideology
in the 1980s and ’90s, in both the
academy and in the marketplace,
the design process got mired in
the act of referencing cultural styles
or tailoring messages to narrowly
defined communities.

9 Back to the Bauhaus

The New Basics Designers at the
Bauhaus believed not only in a
universal way of describing visual
form, but also in its universal
significance. Reacting against that
belief, postmodernism discredited
formal experiment as a primary
component of thinking and making
in the visual arts. Formal study
was considered to be tainted by its
link to universalistic ideologies.
This book recognizes a difference
between description and
interpretation, between a potentially
universal language of making
and the universality of meaning.
Today, software designers have
realized the Bauhaus goal of
describing (but not interpreting) the
language of vision in a universal
way. Software organizes visual
material into menus of properties,
parameters, filters, and so on,
creating tools that are universal
in their social ubiquity, crossdisciplinarity, and descriptive
power. Photoshop, for example, is
a systematic study of the features
of an image (its contrast, size,
color model, and so on). InDesign
and QuarkXpress are structural
explorations of typography: they are
software machines for controlling
leading, alignment, spacing, and
column structures as well as image
placement and page layout.
In the aftermath of the Bauhaus,
textbooks of basic design have returned again and again to elements
such as point, line, plane, texture,
and color, organized by principles of
scale, contrast, movement, rhythm,
and balance. This book revisits those
concepts as well as looking at some
of the new universals emerging today.

Transparency and Layers The Google Earth
interface allows users to manipulate the
transparency of overlays placed over satellite
photographs of Earth. Here, Hurricane
Katrina hovers over the Gulf Coast of the US.
Storm: University of Wisconsin, Madison
Cooperative Institute for Meteorogical
Satellite Studies, 2005. Composite: Jack
Gondela.

What are these emerging
universals? What is new in basic
design? Consider, for example,
transparency­— a concept explored
in this book. Transparency is a
condition in which two or more
surfaces or substances are visible
through each other. We constantly
experience transparency in the
physical environment: from water,
glass, and smoke to venetian blinds,
slatted fences, and perforated
screens. Graphic designers across
the modern period have worked
with transparency, but never more
so than today, when transparency
can be instantly manipulated with
commonly used tools.
What does transparency
mean? Transparency can be used to
construct thematic relationships. For
example, compressing two pictures
into a single space can suggest
a conflict or synthesis of ideas
(East/West, male/female, old/new).
Designers also employ transparency
as a compositional (rather than
thematic) device, using it to soften
edges, establish emphasis, separate
competing elements, and so on.
Trans­parency is crucial to the
vocabulary of film and motion-based
media. In place of a straight cut,
an animator or editor diminishes
the opacity of an image over
time (fade to black) or mixes two
semitransparent images (cross
dissolve). Such transitions affect a

film’s rhythm and style. They also
modulate, in subtle ways, the
message or content of the work.
Although viewers rarely stop to
interpret these transitions, a video
editor or animator understands
them as part of the basic language
of moving images.
Layering is another universal
concept with rising importance.
Physical printing processes use
layers (ink on paper), and so do
software interfaces (from layered
Photoshop files to sound or
motion timelines).
Transparency and layering have
always been at play in the graphic
arts. In today’s context, what makes
them new again is their omnipresent
accessibility through software.
Powerful digital tools are commonly
available to professional artists
and designers but also to children,
amateurs, and tinkerers of every
stripe. Their language has become
universal.
Software tools provide models
of visual media, but they don’t tell us
what to make or what to say. It is
the designer’s task to produce works
that are relevant to living situations
(audience, context, program,
brief, site) and to deliver meaningful
messages and rich, embodied
experiences. Each producer animates
design’s core structures from
his or her own place in the world.

Beyond the Basics

Jennifer Cole Phillips

Even the most robust visual
language is useless without the
ability to engage it in a living
context. While this book centers
around formal structure and
experiment, some opening thoughts
on process and problem solving
are appropriate here, as we hope
readers will reach not only for more
accomplished form, but for form that
resonates with fresh meaning.
Before the Macintosh, solving
graphic design problems meant
outsourcing at nearly every stage
of the way: manuscripts were
sent to a typesetter; photographs—
selected from contact sheets—were
printed at a lab and corrected by
a retoucher; and finished artwork
was the job of a paste-up artist,
who sliced and cemented type and
images onto boards. This protocol
slowed down the work process and
required designers to plan each
step methodically.
By contrast, easily accessed
software, cloud storage, ubiquitous
wi-fi, and powerful laptops now
allow designers and users to control
and create complex work flows
from almost anywhere.

Yet, as these digital technologies
afford greater freedom and convenience, they also require ongoing
education and upkeep. This recurring
learning curve, added to already
overloaded schedules, often cuts
short the creative window for
concept development and formal
experimentation.
In the college context, students
arrive ever more digitally adept.
Acculturated by social media,
smart phones, iPads, and apps,
design students command the
technical savvy that used to take
years to build. This network knowhow, though, does not necessarily
translate into creative thinking.
Too often, the temptation to turn
directly to the computer precludes
deeper levels of research and
ideation—the distillation zone that
unfolds beyond the average appetite
for testing the waters and exploring
alternatives. People, places,
thoughts, and things become
familiar through repeated exposure.
It stands to reason, then, that initial
ideas and, typically, the top tiers of a
Google search turn up only cursory
results that are often tired and trite.
Getting to more interesting
territory requires the perseverance
to sift, sort, and assimilate subjects
and solutions until a fresh spark
emerges and takes hold.

Visual Thinking Ubiquitous access to
image editing and design software,
together with zealous media
inculcation on all things design, has
created a tidal wave of design makers
outside the profession. Indeed, in our
previous book, D.I.Y.: Design It Yourself,
we extolled the virtues of learning
and making, arguing that people acquire
pleasure, knowledge, and power
by engaging with design at all levels.
This volume shifts the climate of
the conversation. Instead of skimming
the surface, we dig deeper. Rather
than issuing instructions, we frame
problems and suggest possibilities.
Inside, you will find many examples,
by students and professionals, that
balance and blend idiosyncrasy with
formal discipline.
Rather than focus on practical
problems such as how to design
a book, brochure, app, or website,
this book encourages readers to
experiment with the visual language
of design. By “experiment,” we mean
the process of examining a form,
material, or process in a methodical
yet open-ended way. To experiment
is to isolate elements of an operation,
limiting some variables in order to
better study others. An experiment
asks a question or tests a hypothesis
whose answer is not known in advance.

The book is organized around
some of the formal elements and
phenomena of design. In practice,
those components mix and overlap,
as they do in the examples shown
throughout the book. By focusing
attention on particular aspects of
visual form, we encourage readers
to recognize the forces at play
behind strong graphic solutions.
Likewise, while a dictionary presents
specific words in isolation, those
words come alive in the active
context of writing and speaking.
Filtered through formal and
conceptual experimentation, design
thinking fuses a shared discipline
with organic interpretation.

Diagramming Process Charles Eames drew
this diagram to explain the design process
as achieving a point where the needs
and interests of the client, the designer, and
society as a whole overlap. Charles Eames,
1969, for the exhibition What is Design at
the Musée des Arts décoratifs, Paris, France.
© 2007 Eames Office LLC.

11 Beyond the Basics

Choose your corner, pick away at it carefully, intensely and to the best of your ability
and that way you might change the world. Charles Eames

Formstorming
I like a lot the adage that for every problem there is a solution
that is simple, obvious, and wrong. A problem worthy of the name is seldom
accessible to sudden and simple solution. Malcolm Grear

Photo Constructions Designer Martin
Venezky made this image of reconstructed
details from a large collage wall he
generated in a three-day formstorming
exercise for All Possible Futures, an
exhibition by Jon Sueda.
Martin Venezky, Appetite Engineers.

In a world where almost every
designer has instant access to vast
image databases and online search
sites, there is little wonder why
the landscape of contemporary
graphic design is mired in
mediocre solutions that capitalize
on convenience. Many designers
are not familiar with the kind
of rigorous processes that might
lead to higher levels of formal and
conceptual innovation.
Formstorming is an act of visual
thinking—a tool for designers to
unlock and deepen solutions to
basic design problems. This chapter
presents several formstorming
exercises designed to trigger and
tease out options and ideas that
go beyond the familiar, prompting
designers to find fresh ways to
illuminate subjects through guided
creative engagement.
Formstorming moves the
maker through automatic, easily
conceived notions, toward
recognizable yet nuanced concepts,
to surprising results that compel
us with their originality. The
endurance required to stick with a
subject through exhaustive iteration,
dissection, synthesis, revision, and
representation takes discipline and
drive, but this level of immersion

yields an unexpected and profound
return on the creative investment.
In design school students are
cautioned against turning too
quickly to the computer, eclipsing
the ideation phase. Still, many
designers engage the process
of concept generation thinly, soon
landing in a place that seems
promising and then starting
prematurely to build out that idea.
The result of such a truncated
development phase is dull design
that, at best, seems slick and
eye-catching and, at worst, appears
instantly dispensable.
Top chefs remind us that a great
dish depends on top-notch ingredients.
Likewise, in graphic design, we
must strive for excellence in each
part of our design. The principles
and processes demonstrated in this
chapter may be used to elevate
and extend any of the design basics
covered in this book and beyond.
In a complex world that is filtered
through layers of visual, verbal, and
sensory signals, robust, clear visual
communication is key. Excellent
design not only helps us make sense
of our lives, but it can make
the experience a pleasurable one.

14 Graphic Design: The New Basics

egg

One Hundred Iterations
Generating multiple iterations of one
subject is a means of digging deeper.
By repeatedly tapping into our
mental database of associations and
ideas, we are able to exhaust the
obvious and get to fresher territory.
This classic exercise asks designers
to choose one subject and visually
interpret it in one hundred ways.
Basic semiotic principles—the icon,
index, and symbol—are introduced
to expand the scope of thinking
and representation. Students make,
capture, and appropriate imagery
that, as a collection, has depth and
breadth conceptually and formally,
with an emphasis on excellence
and innovation. MFA Studio. Jennifer
Cole Phillips, faculty.

One dozen.

Don't put all
your eggs in
one basket.

Dozens of Eggs This designer chose a
bound book to house her one hundred
egg iterations. Basic semiotic modes
of representation helped probe the subject
from multiple angles. Indexical signs,
such as the nest, shell, sperm, and carton,
point to the subject, while icons, such
as photographs and illustrations of eggs,
resemble the subject. Symbols, such as
a Humpty Dumpty, rely on shared cultural
understanding. Multipage formats challenge
the designer to address a layer of pacing
and parallelism. Jackie Littman.

Benedict.

Hard boild

15 Formstorming

A Plus Working with the letter A, the designer
found or created one hundred diverse and
graphically compelling images. She arranged
the edited collection inside and around a
gridded template, paying careful attention
to the distribution of color, texture, depth
of field, and gesture in order to engage the
viewer’s eye throughout the composition.
Yingxi Zhou.

16 Graphic Design: The New Basics

Colleen Roxas
Precedents These are or inspiration that
shared the approach of translating typographic
messages and shapes into 3D form.

Formstorming Templates
These templates can serve as
inspiring vessels to capture, collect,
and curate evolving visual and
verbal ideas related to projects.
Designers use formatted templates
to mindfully conduct essential
investigations, such as research
precedents, engage in visual
thinking, draft sketches, and explore
various visual and verbal voices,
vehicles, component formats, and
media and materials. A multi-column
grid helps distribute and arrange
subject matter, and captions and
context summaries reference and
record design thinking. Advanced
Graphic Design II and MFA Studio.
Jennifer Cole Phillips, faculty.

Pairing Connections Letters were
explored in pairs, interconnecting with
one another to form new relationships

Character types Here, a celebration
of cats emerge as the form and fur are
formed from the letters “M, E, O, W”

Character types Again, a musical enthusiat’s
interest is captured through the interplay of
letters from the musical scale, “F, A, C, E, G,
B, D, F” to denote headphones, which then
converge repetitively to form soundwaves

3D Applications These experiments are
testing the translation of typographic
concepts into 3D form. Applications for
product design might include jewelry,
textile designs for apparal, accessories,
and home furnishings

Customization Creating patterns from
letters is one way to integrate and abstractly
represent persona and coalescence. This
exploration utilizes the letters of my
name, “C, O, L, L, E, E, N,” together with
ampersands, to form modular patterns

Beyond the Sketchbook Selecting, synthesizing, rendering, representing, and installing
visual ideas into templates provides
an added layer of clarity and curation, and
serves as a more professional process
record than a sketchbook. Aura Selzer.

project title

project description

Embody
A unification of individual character types

Typography explored as unique, abstract form, apart from their context as language,
holds infinite possibility for coalescing into new configurations. The convergence
of these characters can serve metaphorically for connections made in interpersonal
relationships, hence, the notion of two souls merging into one unified whole.

designer

Colleen Roxas

17 Formstorming

Jasper Crocker

Yingxi Zhou

Julian Haddad
Design Investigation Undergraduate seniors
at MICA are required to frame and solve a
semester-long design investigation of their
choosing. Often daunted by the openended nature of this challenge, they turn to
formstorming templates, which help them
organize and deepen their work.

18 Graphic Design: The New Basics
Breaking the Block This designer collected
strategies for getting beyond creative blocks
and translated them into experimental
typographic form that fell outside his own
comfort zone. Brian Pelsoh, MFA Studio.

Dailies
This ongoing generative exercise
spurs design thinking through a
daily creative act situated within a
conceptual framework. Designers
are prompted to define the parameters of the daily act, including the
conceptual framework, medium, and
format. The rigor and momentum
involved in creating a design-a-day
help students build key discipline
and time management skills and
yield a robust body of work that
develops the designer’s portfolio and
process. Dailies generally span
at least two weeks and sometimes
involve creating a container or
system to house the work and add
context. MFA Studio. Jennifer Cole
Phillips, faculty.

19 Formstorming

Trending Hashtags This designer chose a
daily trending Twitter hashtag as fodder
for dimensional typographic experiments.
Amanda Buck, MFA Studio.

20 Graphic Design: The New Basics
Daily Collage Project These collaged
compositions were inspired by hand sketches
of famous modern architects, such as Frank
Gehry, Zaha Hadid, and Frank Lloyd Wright.
A controlled color palette and consistent
visual vocabulary insure cohesiveness
across a wide range of experimental form.
Jessica Wen, Advanced Graphic Design I.
Jennifer Cole Phillips, faculty.

21 Formstorming

Happier. Feeling down? Getting anxious?
We’ve got something for you. Just plug
in the patented happi-stick to your device’s
headphone jack and stick your finger in.
We’ll give you a tiny prick, test your blood
for chemical imbalances, then have a
pharmacist deliver the right prescription
to your door. Feeling good has never
been easier.

Happier
Feeling down? Getting anxious? We,ve got something for you. Just plug in the
patented happi-stick to your device's headphone jack and stick your finger in.
We'll give a tiny little prick, test your blood for chemical imbalances, then

have a pharmacist deliver the right prescription to your door Feeling good has
never been easier.

Works with iPhone
Instagramaphone. Show off your love for
vintage music with Instagramaphone, the
hot new audio filter. Why should everything
sound so clean? With Instagramaphone, you
can add audio filters like “vinyl” and “AM
radio” to create authentic background noise
from a simpler era. Create playlists from
iTunes, Spotify, Rdio, and more to play your
favorite songs with a nostalgic twist.

Instagramophone
Show off your love for vintage music with instagrmophone, the hot new audio
filter. Why should every thing sound soclean? With Instagramphone, you can
add audio filters like "viny!" and "AM radio" to create authentic background noise
from simpler era. Create playlists from ITunes, Spotify, Rdio and more to play
your favorites songs with a nostalgic twist.

Works with iPhone

Happier
Pix18r

Instagramophone
Midas Touch
ipoo

Liar, Lair
Brain2 Text

Ptogeny
HealthNut
FeedMe

Uninterrupt
Memoji
Presence
MatchMaker

App a Day This student created fourteen
fictitious apps in fourteen days as an
exercise in rapid design. The apps form a
dystopic family that lampoons society and
blurs the lines of what is possible, what
is legal, and what is worthwhile. Emma
Sherwood-Forbes, MFA Studio.

22 Graphic Design: The New Basics

BECK

DUST BROTHERS

SONIC YOUTH

MURDER BALLADS

Record a Day Passionate about music, this
designer challenged himself to match the
musical moxy and tenor of a collection of his
favorite albums, using color, composition,
and custom typography on a series of daily
LP cover designs. Shiva Nallaperumal,
MFA Studio.

23 Formstorming

Daily Movements For this project the designer
created an animated series of two- and
three-dimensional letterform experiments
built from a variety of digital and analog
bits over the course of a month, and then
built a website to showcase the alphabet
on screen. Jackie Littman, MFA Studio.

24 Graphic Design: The New Basics

THE UNIVERSAL
DECLARATION OF
HUMAN
RIGHTS*
*1. Right to equality 2. Freedom from discrimination 3.
Right to life, liberty, and personal security 4. Freedom
from slavery 5. Freedom from torture and degrading
treatment 6. See Above 7. Right to equality before
the law 8. Right to remedy by a competent tribunal
9. Freedom from arbitrary arrest and exile 10. Right
to fair public hearing 11. Right to be considered innocent until proven guilty 12. Freedom from interference with privacy, family, home, and correspondence

Process Verbs After building a solid
typographic composition, designers
applied a series of actions (both
physical and digital) to their initial
design. The actions were prompted
by a list of verbs, including fold,
cut, tear, touch, warp, reflect,
multiply, copy, disperse, compress,
and reflect. Each designer chose
how to turn these verbs into
design processes and outcomes.
Typography II. Ellen Lupton, faculty.

13. Right to free movement in and out of the country
14. Right to asylum in other countries from persecution 15. Right to a nationality and the freedom to
change it 16. Right to marriage and family 17. Right
to own property 18. Freedom of belief and religion
19. Freedom of opinion and information 20. Right of
peaceful assembly and association 21. Right to participate in government and in free elections 22. Right
to social security 23. Right to desirable work and to

THE UNIVERSAL
DECLARATION OF
HUMAN
RIGHTS*
join trade unions 24. Right to rest and leisure 25.
Right to adequate living standard 26. Right to education 27. Right to participate in in the cultural life of the
community 28. Right to a social order that articulates
this document 29. Community duties essential to a
free and full development 30. Freedom from state or
personal interference in the above rights

THE UNIVERSAL
DECLARATION OF
HUMAN
RIGHTS*
*1. Right to equality 2. Freedom from discrimination 3.
Right to life, liberty, and personal security 4. Freedom
from slavery 5. Freedom from torture and degrading
treatment 6. See Above 7. Right to equality before
the law 8. Right to remedy by a competent tribunal
9. Freedom from arbitrary arrest and exile 10. Right
to fair public hearing 11. Right to be considered innocent until proven guilty 12. Freedom from interference with privacy, family, home, and correspondence

13. Right to free movement in and out of the country
14. Right to asylum in other countries from persecution 15. Right to a nationality and the freedom to
change it 16. Right to marriage and family 17. Right
to own property 18. Freedom of belief and religion
19. Freedom of opinion and information 20. Right of
peaceful assembly and association 21. Right to participate in government and in free elections 22. Right
to social security 23. Right to desirable work and to

*(1) Right to equality. (2) Freedom from
discrimination. (3) Right to life, liberty, and personal
security. (4) Freedom from slavery. (5) Freedom from
torture and degrading treatment. (6) See Above. (7)
Right to equality before the law. (8) Right to remedy
by a competent tribunal. (9) Freedom from arbitrary
arrest and exile. (10) Right to fair public hearing.
(11) Right to be considered innocent until proven
guilty. (12) Freedom from interference with privacy,

family, home, and correspondence. (13) Right to
free movement in and out of the country. (14) Right
to asylum in other countries from persecution. (15)
Right to a nationality and the freedom to change
it. (16) Right to marriage and family. (17) Right to
own property. (18) Freedom of belief and religion.
(19) Freedom of opinion and information. (20) Right
of peaceful assembly and association. (21) Right
to participate in government and in free elections.

(22) Right to social security. (23) Right to desirable
work and to join trade unions. (24) Right to rest and
leisure. (25) Right to adequate living standard. (26)
Right to education. (27) Right to participate in in the
cultural life of the community. (28) Right to a social
order that articulates this document. (29) Community
duties essential to a free and full development. (30)
Freedom from state or personal interference in the
above rights.

THE UNIVERSAL
DECLARATION OF
HUMAN
RIGHTS*
join trade unions 24. Right to rest and leisure 25.
Right to adequate living standard 26. Right to education 27. Right to participate in in the cultural life of the
community 28. Right to a social order that articulates
this document 29. Community duties essential to a
free and full development 30. Freedom from state or
personal interference in the above rights

*1. Right to equality 2. Freedom from discrimination 3.
Right to life, liberty, and personal security 4. Freedom
from slavery 5. Freedom from torture and degrading
treatment 6. See Above 7. Right to equality before
the law 8. Right to remedy by a competent tribunal
9. Freedom from arbitrary arrest and exile 10. Right
to fair public hearing 11. Right to be considered innocent until proven guilty 12. Freedom from interference with privacy, family, home, and correspondence

13. Right to free movement in and out of the country
14. Right to asylum in other countries from persecution 15. Right to a nationality and the freedom to
change it 16. Right to marriage and family 17. Right
to own property 18. Freedom of belief and religion
19. Freedom of opinion and information 20. Right of
peaceful assembly and association 21. Right to participate in government and in free elections 22. Right
to social security 23. Right to desirable work and to

join trade unions 24. Right to rest and leisure 25.
Right to adequate living standard 26. Right to education 27. Right to participate in in the cultural life of the
community 28. Right to a social order that articulates
this document 29. Community duties essential to a
free and full development 30. Freedom from state or
personal interference in the above rights

*1. Right to equality 2. Freedom from discrimination 3.
Right to life, liberty, and personal security 4. Freedom
from slavery 5. Freedom from torture and degrading
treatment 6. See Above 7. Right to equality before
the law 8. Right to remedy by a competent tribunal
9. Freedom from arbitrary arrest and exile 10. Right
to fair public hearing 11. Right to be considered innocent until proven guilty 12. Freedom from interference with privacy, family, home, and correspondence

13. Right to free movement in and out of the country
14. Right to asylum in other countries from persecution 15. Right to a nationality and the freedom to
change it 16. Right to marriage and family 17. Right
to own property 18. Freedom of belief and religion
19. Freedom of opinion and information 20. Right of
peaceful assembly and association 21. Right to participate in government and in free elections 22. Right
to social security 23. Right to desirable work and to

join trade unions 24. Right to rest and leisure 25.
Right to adequate living standard 26. Right to education 27. Right to participate in in the cultural life of the
community 28. Right to a social order that articulates
this document 29. Community duties essential to a
free and full development 30. Freedom from state or
personal interference in the above rights

THE UNIVERSAL
DECLARATION OF
HUMAN
RIGHTS*
*1. Right to equality 2. Freedom from discrimination 3.
Right to life, liberty, and personal security 4. Freedom
from slavery 5. Freedom from torture and degrading
treatment 6. See Above 7. Right to equality before
the law 8. Right to remedy by a competent tribunal
9. Freedom from arbitrary arrest and exile 10. Right
to fair public hearing 11. Right to be considered innocent until proven guilty 12. Freedom from interference with privacy, family, home, and correspondence

Nick Fogarty

13. Right to free movement in and out of the country
14. Right to asylum in other countries from persecution 15. Right to a nationality and the freedom to
change it 16. Right to marriage and family 17. Right
to own property 18. Freedom of belief and religion
19. Freedom of opinion and information 20. Right of
peaceful assembly and association 21. Right to participate in government and in free elections 22. Right
to social security 23. Right to desirable work and to

join trade unions 24. Right to rest and leisure 25.
Right to adequate living standard 26. Right to education 27. Right to participate in in the cultural life of the
community 28. Right to a social order that articulates
this document 29. Community duties essential to a
free and full development 30. Freedom from state or
personal interference in the above rights

RIGHT TO ASYLUM IN OTHER COUNTRIES FROM PERSECUTION
RIGHT TO MARRIAGE AND FAMILY
RIGHT TO OWN PROPERTY
HRIGHT TO REMEDY BY A COMPETENT TRIBUNAL

FRE DOM FROM ARBITRARY ARREST AND EXILE
RIGHT TO FAIR PUBLIC HEARING

RIGHT TO BE CONSIDERED IN OCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY
FREEDOM FROM TORTURE AND DEGRADING TREATMENT
RIGHT TO RECOGNITION AS A PERSON BEFORE THE LAW
RIGHT TO EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW

COMMUNITY DUTIES ES ENTIAL TO A FRE AND FUL DEVELOPMENT

FREEDOM OF BELIEF AND RELIGION

RIGHT TO REMEDY BY A COMPETENT TRIBUNAL

RIGHT OASOCIALORDERTHATARTICULATESTHISDOCUMENT

right

RIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PERSONAL SECURITY
RIGHT TO REMEDY BY A COMPETENT TRIBUNAL

FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION
FREEDOM FROM SLAVERY

FREEDOM FROM SLAVERY

FRE DOMFROMSTATEORPERSONALINTERFERENCEINTHEABOVERIGHTS

Laura
Brewer-Yarnall

RIGHT OFAIRPUBLICHEARING

RIGHT OFAIRPUBLICHEARING

FREDOM INTERF CWITHPRVACY,FMILHOEANDCORESPNDCE FREDOM INTERF CWITHPRVACY,FMILHOEANDCORESPNDCE

FREEDOM OF OPINION AND INFORMATION

RIGHT OF PEACEFUL AS EMBLY AND AS OCIATION

RIGHT OF PARTICIPATE IN GOVERNMENT AND IN FRE ELECTIONS
RIGHT TO SOCIAL SECURITY

RIGHT TO DESIRABLE WORK AND TO JOIN TRADE UNIONS
RIGHT TO REST AND LEISURE

RIGHT TO ADEQUATE LIVING STANDARD

FREEDOM FROM ARBITRARY ARREST AND EXILE

RIGHT TO FAIR PUBLIC HEARING

RIGHT TO BE CONSIDERED INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY

FREEDOM FROM TORTURE AND DEGRADING TREATMENT
RIGHT TO RECOGNITION AS A PERSON BEFORE THE LAW
RIGHT TO EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW

COMMUNITY DUTIES ES ENTIAL TO A FRE AND FUL DEVELOPMENT

RIGHT TO EDUCATION

RICHT TO EQUALITY

RIGHT TO FAIR PUBLIC HEARING

RIGHT TO PARTICIPATE IN IN THE CULTURAL LIFE OF THE COMMUNITY

RICHT TO EQUALITY

free

RIGHT OFAIRPUBLICHEARING

RIGHT OFAIRPUBLICHEARING

RICHT TO EQUALITY

state

RIGHT OFAIRPUBLICHEARING

FREDOM INTERF CWITHPRVACY,FMILHOEANDCORESPNDCE FREDOM INTERF CWITHPRVACY,FMILHOEANDCORESPNDCE

25 Formstorming

RIGHT TO FREE MOVEMENT IN AND OUT OF THE COUNTRY

RIGHT TO A NATIONALITY AND THE FREEDOM TO CHANGE IT

26 Graphic Design: The New Basics
Alterego: Literary Stylist This literatureobsessed hairstylist pays tribute to his
favorite authors by surgically slicing lines of
their prose into strands of hair and fashioning
them into hairstyles reflective of the work’s
era and affect. In the exhibition space, an
expertly crafted film capturing the coiffing
plays in the background. Chen Yu.

LONDON
MONDAY 19 NOVEMBER
TATE MODERN MUSEUM
BANKSIDE LONDON SE1 9TG

SHANGHAI
MONDAY 12 NOVEMBER
CONTEMPORARY ART MUSEUM
231 NANJING WEST ROAD

NEW YORK
MONDAY 05 NOVEMBER
THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART
11 WEST 53 STREET

NEW YORK
MONDAY 05 NOVEMBER
THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART
11 WEST 53 STREET
SHANGHAI
MONDAY 12 NOVEMBER
CONTEMPORARY ART MUSEUM
231 NANJING WEST ROAD
LONDON
MONDAY 19 NOVEMBER
TATE MODERN MUSEUM
BANKSIDE LONDON SE1 9TG

INKNESS
MOHU GRAY
SPRING
2013
COLLECTION

Alterego
This project invites each designer
to develop a fictitious persona that
amplifies, undermines,or rediscovers
an element of themselves and
then to design through the lens
of that character. Alterego pushes
designers to step outside and
beyond their comfort zone and
experiment with fresh design
language, media, and making. At
MICA, the project culminates in
an exhibition where students bring
their character to life in a threedimensional setting. MFA Studio.
Silas Munro and Jennifer Cole
Phillips, faculty.

Alterego: After Hours The persona here is
an elite madam at the helm of an exclusive
“escort service.” Once clients are thoroughly
screened, they receive this provocative
black box containing only a card with a web
address. The site has no information other
than a seductive motion graphic designed to
attract new business. Jamie Carusi.

LONDON
MONDAY 19 NOVEMBER
TATE MODERN MUSEUM
BANKSIDE LONDON SE1 9TG

SHANGHAI
MONDAY 12 NOVEMBER
CONTEMPORARY ART MUSEUM
231 NANJING WEST ROAD

NEW YORK
MONDAY 05 NOVEMBER
THE MUSEUM OF MODERN ART
11 WEST 53 STREET

Alterego: Fashion Sense This alterego is an
internationally renowned fashion designer
with a penchant for sleek silhouettes, taut
asymmetry, and bold graphic form, texture,
and tonality. Yingxi Zhou.

27 Formstorming

INKNESS
MOHU GRAY
SPRING
2013
COLLECTION
INKNESS
MOHU GRAY
SPRING
2013
COLLECTION

28 Graphic Design: The New Basics
Alterego: Identity Disorder The alterego is
a German psychiatrist specializing in multiple
and dissociative identity disorders. Through
multiple-exposure photography meticulously
stitched together, he captures and fuses
fractured persona parts into one cohesive
whole, creating a sort of snapshot of the
psychosis. David Dale.

29 Formstorming

Alterego: Rogue Taxidermist Odds & Ends
for the Rogue Taxidermist is a concept design
for a taxidermist’s toolkit. Wood, leather,
glass, metal, and paper were carefully crafted
to create a credible visual vernacular.
Jackie Littman.

30 Graphic Design: The New Basics
Alterego: Botanical Weaver The artist began
by translating complex flora into digital
materials. She then extracted, layered, and
backlit those images in a modular, interactive
kit-of-parts and later made them into a
motion sequence. The germ of this idea
formed the foundation for this graduate
student’s extraordinary thesis project, The
Anatomy of Vegetables (next page), in
which she performed complex experiments
examining the vocabulary of vegetables
across media, from MRIs to 3D printing and
screen-based interactive environments.
Hong Wei, MFA Studio.

31 Formstorming

Vegetable Anatomy
An anatomical

visual exploration of siz dif erent vegetables
Cucumber

Tomato

Onion

Garlic

Ginger

Potato

Thesis: Vegetable Anatomy The alterego
project (left page) ignited this designer’s
appetite for rigorous and elaborate
experimentation with complex and multiple
media. Her thesis project, The Anatomy
of Vegetables, starts with material studies,
dissection, and analysis, which are then
transformed into tangible contexts, such as
a highly interactive app, grocery tote bags,
animations, and a website. The clearly
articulated hierarchy, and sleek, distilled
thesis exhibition design (above) belie the
thousands of generative investigations the
designer performed throughout the process.
Hong Wei, MFA Studio.

Point, Line, Plane
A line is the track made by the moving point . . .
It is created by movement—specifically through
the destruction of the intense, self-contained
repose of the point. Wassily Kandinsky

h
X
Y
Size
Angle
Others

1
2
3
224.543 715.448 227.491 313.495
24.001 879.651 839.485 291.144
20.000
20.024
20.048
20.072
1.429
1.000
4.141
0.144
1
2
1
2

0

30
29
396.477 386.946
396.899 468.870
20.715
20.691
4.687
5.715
1
3

31
655.302
242.406
20.739
5.395
2

32
33
347.761 158.650
625.749 466.553
20.763
20.787
3.691
6.245
2
2

59

388.065
269.422
21.406
2.471
1

60
450.679
795.973
21.430
2.117
1

61
302.301
319.802
21.454
1.66
2

62
63
9.702
18.621
598.880 782.143
21.502
21.478
3.603
0.988
1
2

89
249.620
450.361
22.122
2.354
4

90
67.441
388.695
22.145
0.952
3

92
93
91
90.058
13.802
440.551
920.408 602.967 200.302
22.169
22.193
22.217
2.805
2.384
0.112
2
2
1

Point to Line Processing is a programming
language created by C. E. B. Reas and
Benjamin Fry. In this digital drawing by Reas,
the lines express a relationship among the
points, derived from numerical data. C. E. B.
Reas, Process 4 (Form/Data 1), 2005 (detail).

Point, line, and plane are the building blocks of design. From these
elements, designers create images,
icons, textures, patterns, diagrams,
animations, and typographic
systems. Indeed, every complex
design shown in this book results at
some level from the interaction of
points, lines, and planes.
Diagrams build relationships
among elements using points, lines,
and planes to map and connect
data. Textures and patterns are
constructed from large groups of
points and lines that repeat, rotate,
and otherwise interact to form
distinctive and engaging surfaces.
Typography consists of individual
letters (points) that form into lines
and fields of text.
For hundreds of years, printing
processes have employed dots
and lines to depict light, shadow,
and volume. Different printing
technologies support distinct kinds
of mark making. To produce a
woodcut, for example, the artist
carves out material from a flat
surface. In contrast to this subtractive
process, lithography allows the artist
to make positive, additive marks
across a surface. In these processes,
dots and lines accumulate to build
larger planes and convey the illusion
of volume.

Photography, invented in
the early 1800s, captures reflected
light automatically. The subtle
tonal variations of photography
eliminated the intermediary mesh
of point and line.
Yet reproducing the tones
of a photographic image requires
translating it into pure graphic
marks, because nearly every
mechanical printing method—from
lithography to laser printing—works
with solid inks. The halftone process,
invented in the 1880s and still used
today, converts a photograph into a
pattern of larger and smaller dots,
simulating tonal variation with pure
spots of black or flat color. The
same principle is used in digital
reproduction.
Today, designers use software
to capture the gestures of the
hand as data that can be endlessly
manipulated and refined. Software
describes images in terms of point,
line, plane, shape, and volume
as well as color, transparency, and
other features. There are numerous
ways to experiment with these
basic elements of two-dimensional
design: observing the environment
around you, making marks with
physical and digital tools, using
software to create and manipulate
images, or writing code to generate
form with rules and variables.

34 Graphic Design: The New Basics

Jason Okutake

x = 4.5521 in
y = 0.997 in

Ryan Gladhill

Point
A point marks a position in space.
In pure geometric terms, a point is
a pair of x, y coordinates. It has
no mass at all. Graphically, however,
a point takes form as a dot, a visible
mark. A point can be an insignificant
fleck of matter or a concentrated
locus of power. It can penetrate like
a bullet, pierce like a nail, or
pucker like a kiss. Through its scale,
position, and relationship to its
surroundings, a point can express its
own identity or melt into the crowd.
A series of points forms a line.
A mass of points becomes texture,
shape, or plane. Tiny points of
varying size create shades of gray.
The tip of an arrow points
the way, just as the crossing of an X
marks a spot.
In typography, the point is a
period—the definitive end of a line.
Each character in a field of text is a
singular element, and thus a kind of
point, a finite element in a series.

end of a line.

Ryan Gladhill

Lauretta Dolch

Lauretta Dolch
Summer Underwood

In typography, each character
in a field of text is a point, a
finite element represented
by a single key stroke. The
letter occupies a position in a
larger line or plane of text. At
the end of the line is a period.
The point is a sign of closure,
of finality. It marks the end.

Robert Ferrell

Digital Imaging. Al Maskeroni, faculty.

35 Point, Line, Plane

Destructive Points Never underestimate
the power of a point. This damaged facade
was photographed in the war-torn city of
Mostar, on the Balkan Peninsula in Bosnia
and Herzegovina. Nancy Froehlich.

36 Graphic Design: The New Basics

Jeremy Botts

length = .9792 in

Lines express emotions.

Line
A line is an infinite series of points.
Understood geometrically, a line has
length, but no breadth. A line is the
connection between two points, or it
is the path of a moving point.
A line can be a positive mark
or a negative gap. Lines appear at
the edges of objects and where two
planes meet.
Graphically, lines exist in many
weights; the thickness and texture
as well as the path of the mark
determine its visual presence. Lines
are drawn with a pen, pencil, brush,
mouse, or digital code. They can
be straight or curved, continuous
or broken. When a line reaches a
certain thickness, it becomes a plane.
Lines multiply to describe volumes,
planes, and textures.
A graph is a rising and falling
line that describes change over time,
as in a waveform charting a heart
beat or an audio signal.
In typographic layouts, lines are
implied as well as literally drawn.
Characters group into lines of text,
while columns are positioned in
blocks that are flush left, flush right,
and justified. Imaginary lines appear
along the edges of each column,
expressing the order of the page.

Josh Sims
Bryan McDonough

Alex Ebright
Justin Lloyd

Digital Imaging.
Nancy Froehlich,
faculty.
Lines describe structure and edges.

Allen Harrison

Lines turn and multiply to describe planes.

Type sits on a baseline.
Typographic
alignment refers to
the organization of
text into columns with
a hard or soft edge.
A justified column is
even along both the
left and right sides.

The crisp edge of a
column is implied
by the even starting
or ending points of
successive lines of
type. The eye connects
the points to make a
line. Such typographic
lines are implied,
not drawn.

37 Point, Line, Plane

Line/Shape Study Vector-based software
uses a closed line to define a shape. Here,
new lines are formed by the intersection of
shapes, creating a swelling form reminiscent
of the path of a steel-point pen. Ryan
Gladhill, MFA Studio.

38 Graphic Design: The New Basics
width = 0.9792 in
height = 0.9792 in

Plane
A plane is a flat surface extending
in height and width. A plane is
the path of a moving line; it is a
line with breadth. A line closes to
become a shape, a bounded plane.
Shapes are planes with edges. In
vector-based software, every shape
consists of line and fill. A plane can
be parallel to the picture surface, or
it can skew and recede into space.
Ceilings, walls, floors, and windows
are physical planes. A plane can
be solid or perforated, opaque or
transparent, textured or smooth.
A field of text is a plane built
from points and lines of type.
A typographic plane can be dense
or open, hard or soft. Designers
experiment with line spacing,
font size, and alignment to create
different typographic shapes.

In typography, letters gather
into lines, and lines build up
into planes. The quality of the
plane—its density or opacity,
its heaviness or lightness
on the page—is determined
by the size of the letters, the
spacing between lines, words,
and characters, and the visual
character of a given typeface.

In typography, letters gather
into lines, and lines build up
into planes. The quality of the
plane—its density, its opacity,
its weight on the page—is
determined by the size of the
letters, the spacing between
lines, words, and characters,
and the visual character of
a given typeface.

Hard, closed shape

Soft, open shape

Plane Letters A plane can be described
with lines or with fields of color. These
letterforms use ribbons of color to describe
spatial planes. Kelly Horigan, Experimental
Typography. Ken Barber, faculty.

39 Point, Line, Plane

Parallel Lines
Converge
Summer
Underwood

Space and Volume
A graphic object that encloses threedimensional space has volume. It
has height, width, and depth. A sheet
of paper or a computer screen has
no real depth, of course, so volume
is represented through graphic
conventions.
Linear perspective simulates
optical distortions, making near
objects appear large as far objects
become small, receding into nothing
as they reach the horizon. The angle
at which elements recede reflects
the position of the viewer. Are the
objects above or below the viewer’s
eye level? Camera lenses replicate
the effects of linear perspective,
recording the position of the
camera’s eye.
Axonometric projections depict
volume without making elements
recede into space. The scale of
elements thus remains consistent
as objects move back into space.
The result is more abstract and
impersonal than linear perspective.
Architects often use axon­o­
metric projections in order to keep
a consistent scale across the page.
Digital game designers often
use this technique as well, creating
maps of simulated worlds rather
than depicting experience from
the ground.

Projection Study This idealized landscape
uses axonometric projection, in which scale
is consistent from the front to back of the
image. As seen on a map or computer game,
this space implies a disembodied, godlike
viewer rather than a physical eye positioned
in relation to a horizon. Visakh Menon,
MFA Studio.

40 Graphic Design: The New Basics

Yeohyun Ahn

Visakh Menon

Gregory May

41 Point, Line, Plane

Yeohyun Ahn

Jason Okutake

Point and Line: Physical and Digital In the
lettering experiments shown here, each
word is written with lines, points, or both,
produced with physical elements, digital
illustrations, or code-generated vectors.
MFA Studio. Marian Bantjes, visiting faculty.

42 Graphic Design: The New Basics

Three Objects, Thirty-Three Ways
This comprehensive design project
encourages designers to observe,
represent, and abstract visible
objects using a variety of materials
and techniques. Designers begin
by visiting an unusual place with
surprising things to see and observe,
such as a local museum, aquarium,
or botanical garden. They produce a
substantial number of observational
drawings of three objects, paying
special attention to the appearance
of form, color, texture, and materials.
Careful observation is followed by
exercises in creating word lists and
drawing from memory to create
a total of ninety-nine studies. The
project exposes designers to the
iterative design process, building
individual capacity for patience,
endurance, and an open mind.
Graphic Design I. Brockett Horne,
faculty.

Trevor Carr

43 Point, Line, Plane

Michael Quednau

44 Graphic Design: The New Basics
Jen Evans

Spatial Translation
In this project, designers explore
point, line, and plane as tools
for expression. They immerse
themselves in a space and observe
it from multiple points of view,
including different vantage points
(above, below) and different
psychological orientations (as a
male, a female, a giraffe, a shrimp,
etc.). Participants generate images
of their chosen spaces in diverse

media, including photography,
drawing, painting, printing, collage,
or video. Representations can be
literal, abstract, iconic, indexical, or
symbolic. After gathering their initial
observations, designers create a
series of representations using dot
stickers, tape, and cut paper. The
final application is a sequence of
ten images suitable for an accordion
fold book. Graphic Design I. Brockett
Horne, faculty.

45 Point, Line, Plane

Michael Quednau

46 Graphic Design: The New Basics

BinaryTree(400,600,400,550,30,1);

BinaryTree(400,600,400,550,30,3);

Drawing with Code
The drawings shown here were
created with Processing, an opensource soft­ware application. The
designs are built from a binary
tree, a basic data structure in which
each node spawns at most two
offspring. Binary trees are used to
organize information hierarchies,
and they often take a graphical form.
The density of the final drawing
depends on the angle between
the “children” and the number of
generations.
The larger design is created
by repeating, rotating, inverting,
connecting, and overlapping the
tree forms. In code-based drawing,
the designer varies the results by
changing the inputs to the algorithm.

BinaryTree(400,600,400,550,30,5);

BinaryTree(400,600,400,550,30,7);

BinaryTree(400,600,400,550,30,9);

Binary Tree The drawing becomes
denser with each generation.
The last number in the code indicates
the number of iterations. Yeohyun
Ahn, MFA Studio.

47 Point, Line, Plane

x2 y2(100,100)
x1 y1(850,200)

x4 y4(150,800)

x3 y3(900,900)

Bézier Curves
A Bézier curve is a line defined by
a set of anchor and control points.
Designers are accustomed to
drawing curves using vector-based
software and then modifying
the curve by adding, subtracting,
and repositioning the anchor and
control points.
The drawings shown here were
created with the open-source soft­
ware application Processing. The
curves were drawn directly in code:
bezier(x1,y1,x2,y2,x3,y3,x4,y4);

The first two parameters (x1, y1)
specify the first anchor point, and
the last two parameters (x4, y4)
specify the other anchor point.
The middle parameters locate the
control points that define the curve.
Curves drawn with standard
illustration software are funda­
mentally the same as curves drawn
in code, but we understand and
control them with different means.
The designer varies the results by
changing the inputs to the algorithm.

beginShape(POLYGON);
vertex(30,20);
bezierVertex(80,0,80,75,30,75);
bezierVertex(50,80,60,25,30,20);
endShape()

bezier(850,200,100,100,900,900,150,800);

for(int i=0; i<900; i=i+100)
{bezier(850,200,100,100,i,900,150,800);}

for(int i=0;i<900; i=i+40)
{bezier(i,200,100,100,900,i,150,800);}

for(int i=0;i<900;i=i+40)
{bezier(i,200,i,100,900,900,150,800);}

Repeated Bézier Curve The designer has
written a function that repeats the curve in
space according to a given increment (i).
The same basic code was used to generate
all the drawings shown above, with varied
inputs for the anchor and control points. A
variable (i) defines the curve. Yeohyun Ahn,
MFA Studio.

Black Flower A Bézier vertex is a shape
created by closing a Bézier curve. This
design was created by rotating numerous
Bézier vertices around a common center,
with varying degrees of transparency.
Yeohyun Ahn, MFA Studio.

48 Graphic Design: The New Basics

Rhythm and Balance

I pay close attention to the variety of shapes and sizes, and place
the objects so that the lines and edges create a rhythm that guides
the viewer’s eye around the image and into the focal point.
Sergei Forostovskii

Rhythm and Repetition This code-driven
photogram employs a simple stencil
plus sign through which light is projected
as the photo paper shifts minutely and
mechanically across the span of hours.
The visual result has the densely layered
richness of a charcoal drawing.
Tad Takano. Photographed for reproduction
by Dan Meyers.

Balance is a fundamental human
condition: we require physical
balance to stand upright and walk;
we seek balance among the
many facets of our personal and
professional lives; the world
struggles for balance of power.
Indeed, balance is a prized
commodity in our culture, and it is
no surprise that our implicit, intuitive
relationship with it has equipped
us to sense balance—or imbalance—
in the things we see, hear, smell,
taste, and touch.
In design, balance acts as a
catalyst for form—it anchors and
activates elements in space. Do
you ever notice your eye getting
stuck in a particular place when
looking at an unresolved design?
This discord usually occurs because
the proportion and placement of
elements in relation to each other
and to the negative space is off—too
big, too tight, too flat, misaligned,
and so on.
Relationships among elements
on the page remind us of physical
relationships. Visual balance occurs
when the weight of one or
more things is distributed evenly
or proportionately in space. Like
arranging furniture in a room,
we move components around until
the balance of form and space
feels just right. Large objects are a
counterpoint to smaller ones; dark
objects to lighter ones.

A symmetrical design, which
has the same elements on at least
two sides along a common axis, is
inherently stable. Yet balance need
not be static. A tightrope walker
achieves balance while traversing a
precarious line in space, continually
shifting her weight while staying
in constant motion. Designers
employ contrasting size, texture,
value, color, and shape to offset or
emphasize the weight of an object
and achieve the acrobat’s dynamic
sense of balance.
Rhythm is a strong, regular,
repeated pattern: the beating of
drums, the patter of rain, the falling
of footsteps. Speech, music, and
dance all employ rhythm to express
form over time. Graphic designers
use rhythm in the construction of
static images as well as in books,
magazines, and motion graphics
that have duration and sequence.
Although pattern design usually
employs unbroken repetition, most
forms of graphic design seek
rhythms that are punctuated with
change and variation. Book design,
for example, seeks out a variety
of scales and tonal values across
its pages, while also preserving an
underlying structural unity.
Balance and rhythm work
together to create works of design
that pulse with life, achieving both
stability and surprise.

50 Graphic Design: The New Basics

Symmetry and Asymmetry
Symmetry can be left to right, top
to bottom, or both. Many natural
organisms have a symmetrical form.
The even weighting of arms and
legs helps insure a creature’s safe
mobility; a tree develops an even
distribution of weight around its core
to stand erect; and the arms of
a starfish radiate from the center.
Symmetry is not the only
way to achieve balance, however.
Asymmetrical designs are generally
more active than symmetrical ones,
and designers achieve balance by
placing contrasting elements in
counterpoint to each other, yielding
compositions that allow the
eye to wander while achieving an
overall stability.

Symmetry The studies above demonstrate
basic symmetrical balance. Elements are
oriented along a common axis; the image
mirrors from side to side along that axis. The
configurations shown here are symmetrical
from left to right and/or from top to bottom.

Asymmetry These studies use asymmetry to
achieve compositional balance. Elements are
placed organically, relying on the interaction
of form and negative space and the proximity
of elements to each other and to the edges
of the field, yielding both tension and balance.

51 Rhythm and Balance

U G A N D A I S W A V E R I N G I N I T S F I G H T A G A I N S T H I V / A I D S A S T H E C O U N T R Y H A S W O N I N T E R N AT I O N A L A C C L A I M F O R I T S

P R O G R E S S A G A I N S T H I V A I D S T H E L AT E S T N U M B E R S H O W E V E R I N D I C AT E T H AT U G A N D A I S

NOW LOSING GROUND THE GOVERNMENT IS BOWING TO PRESSURE FROM

FA I T H - B A S E D

O R G A N I Z AT I O N S

APPROACHES

SUCH

AS

IN

THE

USA

ABSTINENCE

PUSHING

AND

RIGID

BEING

MORALISTIC

FA I T H F U L

AT

THE EXPENSE OF SAFER SEX PRACTICES THE FUNDAMENTAL

ISSUE THE USE OF CONDOMS IS BEING IGNORED OR

LEFT OUT COMPLETELY THE BUSH ADMINISTRATIONS

$1.2 BILLION FUNDING TO UGANDA IS NOW IN

QUESTION AS RATES OF HIV OR ARE RISING

IT SEEMS AS THE HIV AND AIDS ABC

CAMPAIGN HAS LOST ITS POWERCONDOMS ARE AN IMPROVISATION NOT A
PRESIDENT MUSEVENI DETERS THE UGANDAN PEOPLE FROM USING CONDOMS IN HOPES

SOLUTION I FAVOR OPTIMAL RELATIONSHIPS BASED
OF NOT TEACHING CHRISTIANS TO ENGAGE IN DEBAUCHERY THE UGANDAN GOVERNMENT

ON LOVE AND TRUST INSTEAD OF INTENTIONAL
BELIEVES THAT TO USE CONDOMS IS TO INDULGE IN THE CARNAL ACT THEY ASK COMMUNITIES NOT TO USE

e

ectiv

that

is eff

MISTRUST WHICH IS WHAT THE CONDOM IS ALL ABOUT
aids
tell

CONDOMS AS A WAY OF PREVENTING AIDS ONLY ABSTINENCE IS PREACHED HOW

ings

ne th

me o

CONDOMS HAVE BEEN BANNED BY THE GOVERNMENT
nst

agai

D O YO U P R O T E C T YO U R S E L F F R O M H I V W H E N S U B J E C T E D TO R E S T R A I N T S

OF UGANDA BECAUSE THEY PROMOTE SIGNIFICANT
O F R E L I G I O N C O M M U N I T I E S A R E S O E X P O S E D TO T H E A I D S

RISK TO THE POPULATION AT LARGE
PA N D E M I C E S P E C I A L LY B E I N G A PA R T O F A P O LYG A M O U S S O C I E T Y O N E W I F E C A N B E T E S T E D F O R H I V

I WAS FULFILLING WHAT THE GOVERNMENT HAD
B U T C A N T K N O W T H AT H E R H U S B A N D S O T H E R W I F E H AV E B E E N T E S T E D & S H E H A S N O R I G H T TO T E L L H E R TO D O S O

ABSTINENCE AND FIDELITY ARE THE

ORDERED A RECALL AND DESTRUCTION OF CONDOMS

MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS IN ENDING
THE TRANSMISSION OF HIV PROGRAMS
THAT RECEIVE PEPFAR FUNDS WILL NOT
BE REQUIRED TO PROVIDE CONDOMS AS
A MODE OF PREVENTION THE UNITED
STATES ADMINISTRATION WILL TAKE
ABSTINENCE FROM AN AFTERTHOUGHT
FORWARD TO AN URGENT GOAL THE
RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS ARE VITAL
PARTICIPANTS IN THE FIGHT AGAINST
H I V A N D A I D S I N E V E R Y I N S TA N C E

Disrupted Symmetry The designer has
disrupted this symmetrical cross form
to signify political unrest among factions
in Uganda around the HIV/AIDS crisis.
Narrative text lines alternate between
clarity and obfuscation, ultimately erupting
in chaos, yielding a dynamic counterpoint
balance. Katrina Keane, MFA Studio.

52 Graphic Design: The New Basics
Jason Okutake, MFA Studio

Rhythm and Time
We are familiar with rhythm from
the world of sound. In music,
an underlying pattern changes
in time. Layers of pattern occur
simultaneously in music, supporting
each other and providing aural
contrast. In audio mixing, sounds
are amplified or diminished to create
a rhythm that shifts and evolves
over the course of a piece.
Graphic designers employ
similar structures visually. The
repetition of elements such
as circles, lines, and grids creates
rhythm, while varying their
size or intensity generates surprise.
In animation, designers must
orchestrate both audio and visual
rhythms simultaneously.

Manic Mandala The smooth, symmetrical
shapes layered to build this mandala
are interrupted by a discordant frenzy of
sharp, irregular lines and masses. Wenji
Lu, MFA Studio.

53 Rhythm and Balance

Highway Overpasses, Houston, Texas

Repetition and Change
From the flowing contours of a
farmer’s fields to a sea of shipping
containers stacked tightly into rows,
repetition is an endless feature of the
human environment. Like melodic
consonance and fervent discord in
music, repetition and change awaken
life’s visual juxtapositions. Beauty
arises from the mix.

Shipping Containers, Norfolk, Virginia

Contour Farming, Meyersville, Maryland
Observed Rhythm Aerial photographs are
fascinating and surprising because we
are not accustomed to seeing landscapes
from above. The many patterns, textures,
and colors embedded in both man-made
and natural forms—revealed and concealed
through light and shadow—yield intriguing
rhythms. Cameron Davidson.

54 Graphic Design: The New Basics

September 09 – December 20

NEXT WAVE FESTIVAL

Brooklyn

01

NEXT WAVE

Film

FILM

NOV
06
–
08

NEXT
WAVE
2014

EXPOSED: SONGS
FOR UNSEEN WARHOL
howard gilman opera house

Andy Warhol films are provocative milestones of underground cinema, flaunting
convention simply by letting the gritty world be itself[1]. It includes motionless
eight-hour shot of the Empire State Building, a short of Lou Reed drinking a Coke,
and erotic acts aplenty. In Exposed: Songs for Unseen Warhol Films, curated
by The Andy Warhol Museum, 15 never-before-seen, restored selections from the
1960's are unveiled. Five artists representing a musical trajectory from the 70s
today Dean Wareham (Galaxie 500, Luna), Tom Verlaine (Television), Martin Rev
(Suicide), Eleanor Friedberger (The Fiery Furnaces), and Bradford Cox, Deerhunter,
Atlas perform live alongside Warhol’s celluloid oeuvre, featuring Warhol himself.

–

1 hour 15 min / $25

NY Premiere

Atlas Sound
Fiery Furnaces
Martin Rev
Tom Verlaine
The Television
Featuring Live
Bradford Cox
Deerhunter
Dean Wareham
Galaxie 500

06

NEXT WAVE

Talks

07

NEXT WAVE

Talks

08

NEXT WAVE

OCT
25
12p

IVO VAN HOVE AND
TONY KUSHNER
peter jay sharp building

Visionary director Ivo van Hove and the Pulitzer Prize-winning
playwright Tony Kushner discusses this upcoming season’s
production of Angels in America, his epic 1991 examination of
the AIDS. Neda Ulaby, arts, entertainment, and cultural trends.
The reporter for the NPR’s Arts Desk will be moderating.

NEXT WAVE

Talks

live stream from king’s college

NOV
09
4:30p

presented in this professional context?

from King’s College London, a panel of

This talk is presented by the Dance

guests from across artistic discipline

Umbrella and comes to BAM with this

ON TRUTH (AND LIES) IN HOMECOMING
peter jay sharp building

debate the use of the non-professional

season’s presentation of Kontakthof

Phil Klay, U.S. Marine Corps veteran and author of Redeployment—short listed for

performers in the arts. What excites

Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch, an

the National Book Award for fiction—and Nancy Sherman, the philosopher and

artists about choosing this way to work,

iconic work by the late choreographer

author of The Untold War, join Simon Critchley to explore the notion of nostos, the

and how do we, as audience, watch

and dance-theater that has been staged

Greek word for homecoming, to better understand the psychological truths face

them differently? How do those taking

with non-professional dancers: on one

part feel after a process has ended?

occasion, a company of teenagers, and

How do we, and how can we, critically

on another, a company of seniors are

assess participatory work, when it is

presented as primarly the show dancer.

–

–

09

POLITICS OF
PARTICIPATION
In this discussion, a livestream event

OCT
22
7:00p

TALKS

Talks

by servicemen and women returning from war today in this age.

–

1 hour 30 min / $15 / $7.50 friends of BAM

1 hour 30 min / Free

1 hour 30 min / $25 / $12.50 friends

In conjunction

Dance Umbrella

with Angels

In partnership with

in America

the Cultural Institute

Moderated by

at King’s College,

Neda Ulaby

London and BAM
Moderated by
Dr. Daniel Glaser,
Director Science
Gallery, King’s
College, London

On Truth (and Lies) in Homecoming is part of
the Hellenic Humanities Program co-present
with the Onassis Cultural Center.

14

NEXT WAVE

Music

15

NEXT WAVE

Music

16

NEXT WAVE

Music

17

NEXT WAVE

Music

MUSIC
Co-commissioned by BAM and
the Brooklyn Youth Chorus

SEP
10
8:00p

CHRIS THILE & BRAD
MEHLDAU DUO

SEP
24
8:00p

bam harvey theater

ROKIA TRAORÉ
jay sharp building

NOV
20
–
23

THE BLACK
MOUNTAIN SONGS
bam harvey theater

Traoré’s music draws on her homeland’s

Nonesuch Records label-mates Chris
Thile and Brad Mehldau play as a duet,

SEP
18
7:30p

with repertoire including a classical
transcriptions, pop covers, and original.

–

1 hour / $25

SEP
12
–
13

THE CAROLINA
CHOCOLATE DROPS
peter jay sharp building

traditions as well as the European and

At North Carolina’s Black Mountain College, erstwhile commune and artistic play

American rock and pop she has listened

ground of John Cage, Merce Cunningham, Robert Rauschenberg and many others,

Jenny Shore Butler

a spirit of radical democracy prevailed. Students and teachers shared roles and

Musicals by

to throughout her lifetime until today.

–

45 min / $25

After their BAM debut in 2014 Winter

Rokia Traoré, singer multi-instrumentalist

Spring Season, Carolina Chocolate

With special guests Kronos Quartet

Choreographed by

Richard Reed Parry,

work, boundaries between disciplines dissolved, and art bled into life, nurturing an

Jherek Bischoff,

atmosphere of unfettered creative collaboration.

Tim Hecker, John
Bryce Dessner,

In Black Mountain Songs, performed by the Brooklyn Youth Chorus, commissioned
and produced by BAM and the Brooklyn Youth Chorus, curated by Bryce P. Dessner

King, Nico Muhly,
The Brooklyn

Caroline Shaw,

Film design by

Youth Chorus

Aleksand Vrebalov

Matt Wolf

ALARM WILL SOUND

Drops return for one night only. Known

and Richard Reed Parry, that collective thread is renewed. All eight composers

bam harvey theater

for fresh interpretation of old-time,

Dessner, Parry, Pulitzer Prize winner Caroline Shaw, Nico Muhly, Aleksand Vrebalov,

Choral director

Set design by

fiddle, and banjo-based music, award

John King, Tim Hecker, and Jherek Bischoff—who collaborate with Matt Wolf

D. Berkun-Menaker

Mimi Lien

Alarm Will Sound is a 20 members band

Grammy Award-winning string band

(Wild Combination: A Portrait of Arthur Russell) to create an expansive choral and

Created by

Costume Design by

committed to innovative performance

performs from two Nonesuch releases.

visual work that reminds and rekindles Black Mountain’s utopian spirit.

Bryce Dessner

Sarah Maiorino

Co-curated by

Lighting Design by

1 hour / $25

1 hour 30 min / $20

Bryce Dessner &

Ben Stanton

and recordings of today’s music with an
established reputation for performing

–

–

World Premiere

demanding music with a energetic skill.

–

Richard Reed Parry

Sound design by

Directed by

Jamie McElhinney

Maureen Towey

1 hour 10 min / $20

Video design by
Grant McDonald

Conducted by Alan Pierson
Music by Tyondai Braxton and Steve Reich

Rhythm and Pacing
Designers often work with content
distributed across multiple pages.
As in a single-page composition,
5an overall coherence. Imagery,
typography, rules, color fields, and
so on are placed with mindful

intention to create focal points and
to carry the viewer’s eye through the
piece. An underlying grid helps bring
order to a progression of pages.
Keeping an element of surprise and
variation is key to sustaining interest.

NEXT WAVE

SEP
17
–
20

Theater

03

RIVERRUN

OCT
07
–
12

fisher fishman space

“riverrun, past Eve and Adam’s, from

NEXT WAVE

Theater

howard gilman opera house

prose into undulating soundscapes,
inhabiting voice of Anna Livia Plurabelle,

read aloud. Singlehandedly validating

the river’s personification, she swells

that claim, formidable Irish actress

and surges her way through the Wake’s

Olwen Fouéré, assuming the role of

end and out to sea. riverrun captures

the river Liffey, offers interpretation of

the spirit of the river, inspired by Joyce.

05

NEXT WAVE

OCT
17
7:30p

Dynasty Handbag

Clifford Owens

Soggy Glasses

A Forum for

Ambic pentameter gets a surreal change in the pop-opera
romp in Shakespeare’s sonnets from director Robert Wilson

Finnegans Wake espouse the idea
that its language comes to life when

Theater

Theater

SHAKESPEARE’S
SONNETS

night.” Force of nature possessed of
crackling phrase, Fouéré turns Joyce’s

1 hour / $20 US

NEXT WAVE

the final section of Joyce’s “book of the

swerve of shore to bend of the bay"
Adherents of James Joyce’s '39 tome

–

04

Performance Art

and composer Rufus Wainwright collaborational relation.

–

2 hour 45 min / $20

BROOKLYN BRED 2:
DYNASTY HANDBAG
fisher fishman space

Dynasty Handbag offers feminist gloss on Homer’s Odyssey

US Premiere

OCT
16
7:30p

as part of Brooklyn Bred, performance showcase curated

BROOKLYN BRED 2:
CLIFFORD OWENS

by Franklin Furnace Archive founder/director Martha Wilson.

–

1 hour / $20

fisher fishman space

World Premiere

Art world provocateur Clifford Owens and colleagues Amanda

US Premiere

Alfieri, Renee Cox, Shaun Leonardo, Martha Wilson stage
Adapted, directed,

Galway International

and performed by

Arts Festival with

Olwen Fouéré

Cusack Projects

Co-directed by

TheEmergencyRoom

an interactive forum on performance art, as part of Brooklyn
Bred, a series curated by Wilson, the founder and director
of the Franklin Furnace Archive and other awarded programs.

–

Kellie Hughes

THEATER

1 hour / $20

World Premiere

Sound design and
composition by

OCT
18
9:00p

Alma Kelliher
Lighting design by
Stephen Dodd

BROOKLYN BRED 2:
PABLO HELGUERA
fisher fishman space

Costume design by

A New York-based artist Pablo Helguera

Monica Frawley
Presented with

Brooklyn Bred 2 Happy Hour / 8:30 –9:30pm
Berliner Ensemble

Irish Arts Center

Directing, stage

Costume design by

Co-direction by

By Robert Wilson

design, lighting

Jacques Reynaud

Ann-Christin

Rufus Wainwright

concept by

Conducted by

Rommen

Sonnet select by

Robert Wilson

Hans-Jörn Branden-

Lighting by

Jutta Ferbers

Musicals by

burg, Stefan Rager

Andreas Fuchs

Rufus Wainwright

10

NEXT WAVE

Dance

11

Pablo Helguera

Join us for happy hour in the BAM Fisher lower lobby

corresponds with audience members

The Parable

advance of his performance—and asks

Conference

them to trust him—for his installment
Brooklyn Bred, a performance art show
case curated by Franklin Furnace.

–

and Ulrich Eh

1 hour / $20

NEXT WAVE

Dance

12

NEXT WAVE

Classes

13

NEXT WAVE

World Premiere

Classes

CLASSES

DANCE

The Gilles Jobin
Company
Gilles Jobin and
Julius von Bismarck

OCT
02
–
04

QUANTUM

Choreography by

fisher fishman space

Jessica Lang

Developed by Swiss choreographer Gilles Jobin and a German

Nicole Pearce

Lighting design by
Set design by

visual artist Julius von Bismarck while at CERN, the world’s

Mimi Lien

largest particle physics lab, QUANTUM takes the quark just as
Choreography by
Gilles Jobin
Lumino-kinetic
installation by
Julius von Bismarck
Engineer
Martin Schied
Musicals by

DEC
03
–
06

muse, fusing choreography and installation art into ode to
subatomic randomness. Six dancers vibrate, scatter, and whirl
beneath a gyrating quartet of industrial lamps, programmed
to respond to the slightest of movement, while Carla Scaletti’s

Like an expert painter[1], Jessica Lang
is a master of choreographic tableau.

–

45 min / $20

SEP
08
–
25

JODI MELNICK

With Paul Lazar

ultimate goal of seeing movement detail with a sharp eye.

–

3 hour / $20

Dancers

–

program, Loterie Romande, Fondation Meyrinoise du Casino,

1 hour 15 min / $20

2 hour / $25

In conjunction with
Moment Marigold
Co-presented by
BAM and the Mark
Morris Dance Group

2014, and the Hermès Foundation (Fondation d'entreprise Hermès)
New Settings program present

NEXT WAVE

Music

VIJAY IYER: MUSIC
OF TRANSFORMATION
bam harvey theater

Nothing pianist and composer Vijay Iyer
does is conventional, whether it’s a
deviously skewed version of “Human
Nature” by Michael Jackson or a burst
of South Indian rhythm over swung

BAM to perform the program of works

change depending on a host of environmental variables. For dancers & theater.

–

spinning a tale of jealousy, desire

BAM 2014 Next Wave Festival, FIAF’s Crossing the Line Festival

representing his auspicious career

shop led Big Dance Theater co-artistic director Paul Lazar. Pairing simple dance

nimbly through this pastoral landscape,

Fondation Leenaards, Fondation Ernst Göhner

Conducted By

Musics By

Steven Schick

Vjay Iyer

International

Films By

Contemporary

P. Bhargava

Ensemble

to date: the world premieres of a solo
piano piece, commission by BAM;
his recent suite Mutations for a piano,
electronics, and string quartet; his
shimmering score, ecstatic descent
into the streets of India during the
Hindu festival, show by Iyer and the
International Contemporary Ensemble.

–

1 hour 50 minutes / $20

The Next Wave Festival This highly
systematic project asks designers to create a
program of events for the Brooklyn Academy
of Music’s Next Wave Festival. Given the
sophisticated, avant-garde nature of the
venue, designers are encouraged to reach
for fresh solutions that will balance a spirit
of invention and expression with navigable
order and clearly accessible information.

This solution creates counterpoint contrast
between the undulating and smoky
wave forms and a rigorous grid system,
hierarchy, and dynamic distribution within
each spread and across the entire sequence.
Kim Meistrell, Advanced Graphic Design I.
Jennifer Cole Phillips, faculty.

12pm / NOV 22
mark morris dance center

phrases with various texts and excerpts of music, Lazar shows how movement can

Müllerin, performed live, provides the

that terminates at the babbling brook.

BIG DANCE THEATER

Participants discover the potential for unexpected theatrical moments in this work

narrative thread. Nine dancers move

With the support of Fondation d’entreprise Hermès / New Settings

of Geneva and Pro Helvetia Swiss Arts Council

bass. The prodigiously talented player

NOV
22
12:00p

The class will be followed by a short Q & A.

Gilles Jobin is associated artist at Bonlieu Scène nationale Annecy.

and MacArthur fellow will come to

Triple Feature

how to manipulate dance sequenc—re-organizing, adding,
taking away, and finding different pathways—with the

With CollideCERN, Théâtre Forum Meyrin, CERN CMS Experiment

DEC
18
–
20

Alan Smithee
Directed This Play:

Led by choreographer Jodi Melnick, this class incorporates
both set and improvised material. Participants will learn

Cie Gilles Jobin is supported by the City of Geneva, the Canton

18

In conjunction with

howard gilman opera house

Schubert’s song cycle Die schöne

Scientific advisors
Nicolas Chanon

Visual Concept by
Jessica Lang

In her story ballet The Wanderer, Franz

US Premiere

Costumes by
Jan-Paul Lespagnard

CERN physicists

fish fisherman space

soundscape, derived from particle collision data.

Carla Scaletti

Michael Doser,

THE WANDERER

Practicioners

55 Rhythm and Balance

02

56 Graphic Design: The New Basics

57 Rhythm
Balance
The Newand
Basics
Ordered Improvisation The designer
commands a complex and nuanced visual
vocabulary, embedding a graceful balance
of order and improvisation into compositions
built with dynamic asymmetry across
multiple spreads. Julia Rivera, Advanced
Graphic Design I, Jennifer Cole Phillips,
faculty.

58 Graphic Design: The New Basics

A to z
visual Rattle
from Rick Valicenti

as seen through
Real Eyes

Realized by:
CONCEPT AND DESIGN: RICK VALICENTI FOR THIRST 3ST.COM

PORTRAIT AND BICEP PHOTOGRAPHY: WM VALICENTI QUAD PHOTO LA

VISUALIZATION : REAL EYES 2 EAST OAK STREET CHICAGO. REAL EYES IS AN ASSET OF CLASSIC COLOR

PREPRESS AND PRINTING: CLASSIC COLOR CHICAGO

EQUIPMENT: KOMORI LS 40” 6 COLOR + ANILOX COATER EXTENDED DELIVERY AND CIP 3 KODAK PRINERGY/KMS WORKFLOW.

PRINTING TECHNIQUES: PRINTED USING STOCASTIC SCREENING OUTPUT ON FUJI JAVELIN WITH FUJI THERMAL PLATES AND A TOYO HEXACOLOR INK SET.

PAPER: DOMTAR LUNA GLOSS 100# AND 80# C

FLY SHEETS: CURIOUS METALLICS AQUA FIZZ 80# T

Graceful Entry These pages serve as the
cover, lead-in, and close of a lavishly
designed and illustrated alphabet book.
The simple, well-balanced elements are
introduced, then animated with color and
context, and finally returned to abstraction,
creating a playful and compelling
progression that belies the complexity of
the book’s interior. Rick Valicenti, Thirst.

Beautiful

Michael

The pictures
were taken fron

in eiter Ma Northrup
Chicago,1
Charlottesvi

Spinal Orientation This collection of
photographs by Michael Northrup includes
many images with a prominent central
feature. Designer Paul Sahre responded
to this condition by splitting the title and
other opening text matter between the
front and back of the book, thus creating
surprise for and increased interaction with
the reader. Paul Sahre, Office of Paul Sahre.
Book photographed by Dan Meyers.

1 Ecstasy

59 Rhythm and Balance

in this book

m 1976 to 1982
arietta, Ohio;
llinis; or
lle, Virginia.

ATLANTIC
OCEAN
72°W

64° W

24°N

16°N

Tropicof Cancer

8°N

CARIBBEAN SEA

Scale

Miss Darcy was tall, and on a larger scale than Elizabeth;
and, though little more than sixteen, her figure was formed,
and her appearance womanly and graceful. Jane Austen

A printed piece can be as small
as a postage stamp or as large as a
billboard. A logo must be legible
both at a tiny size and from a great
distance, while a film might be
viewed in a huge stadium or on a
handheld device. Some projects
are designed to be reproduced at
multiple scales, while others
are conceived for a single site or
medium. No matter what size
your work will ultimately be, it must
have its own sense of scale.
What do designers mean by
scale? Scale can be considered
both objectively and subjectively.
In objective terms, scale refers to
the literal dimensions of a physical
object or to the literal correlation
between a representation and the
real thing it depicts. Printed maps
have an exact scale: an increment of
measure on the page represents an
increment in the physical world.
Scale models re-create relationships
found in full-scale objects. Thus a
model car closely approximates the
features of a working vehicle, while a
toy car plays with size relationships,
inflating some elements while
diminishing others.
Big Picture from Small Parts This design
represents Caribbean culture as the
colloquy of numerous small islands.
The meaning of the image comes directly
from the contrast in scale. Robert Lewis,
MFA Studio.

Subjectively, scale refers to
one’s impression of an object’s size.
A book or a room, for example,
might have a grand or intimate scale,
reflecting how it relates to our own
bodies and to our knowledge of
other books and other rooms. We
say that an image or representation
“lacks scale” when it has no cues
that connect it to lived experience,
giving it a physical identity. A design
whose elements all have a similar
size often feels dull and static,
lacking contrast in scale.
Scale can depend on context.
An ordinary piece of paper can
contain lettering or images that seem
to burst off its edges, conveying a
surprising sense of scale. Likewise, a
small isolated element can punctuate
a large surface, drawing importance
from the vast space surrounding it.
Designers are often unpleasantly
surprised when they first print out a
piece that they have been designing
on screen; elements that looked
vibrant and dynamic on screen may
appear dull and flaccid on the page.
For example, 12pt type generally
appears legible and appropriately
scaled when viewed on a computer
monitor, but the same type can feel
crude and unwieldy as printed text.
Developing sensitivity to scale is an
ongoing process for every designer.

62 Graphic Design: The New Basics

Scale is Relative
A graphic element can appear larger
or smaller depending on the size,
placement, and color of the elements
around it. When elements are all
the same size, the design feels flat.
Contrast in size can create a sense of
tension as well as a feeling of depth
and movement. Small shapes tend
to recede; large ones move forward.

Familiar Objects, Familiar Scale We expect
some objects to be a particular scale in
relation to each other. Playing with that scale
can create spatial illusions and conceptual
relationships. Gregory May, MFA Studio.

Cropping to Imply Scale
The larger circular form
seems especially big
because it bleeds off the
edges of the page.

g

r

orp

Outside

dinsi e

63 Scale

e

s

out in side

O U Come fullUempty
inside

F

move

empty

LL

come

Krista Quick, Nan Yi, Julie Diewald

Jie Lian, Sueyun Choi, Ryan Artell

Scale, Depth, and Motion In the typographic
compositions shown here, designers worked
with one word or a pair of words and
used changes in scale as well as placement
on the page to convey the meaning of
the word or word pair. Contrasts in scale can
imply motion or depth as well as express
differences in importance.

Typography I and Graphic Design I.
Ellen Lupton and Zvezdana Rogic, faculty.

Jenn Julian, Nan Yi, Sueyun Choi

64 Graphic Design: The New Basics

MOBILE

MINDED
Big Type, Small Pages In this book designed
by Mieke Gerritzen, the small trim size of
the page contrasts with the large-scale type.
The surprising size of the text gives the
book its loud and zealous voice. The cover
is reproduced here at actual size (1:1 scale).
Mieke Gerritzen and Geert Lovink, Mobile
Minded, 2002.

058

milbi toy

65 Scale

WHEN WAS THE LAST TIME i HEARD FROM YOU ANYWAY?

E MOBIL
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007

send

SMS
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6444663

ONLY in JAPAN

WHERE MEN TEND TO VIEW
CELLPHONES AS

TOYS,
WOMAN TREAT THEM LIKE

ACCESSORIES
IMODE: NTT DOCOMO END-USER PRODUCT + HTML INFASTRUCTURE

PERSONALSPACE

JUNKSPACE
VIRTUALSPACE

CELLSPACE
VISUALSPACE
FREESPACE
PUBLICSPACE

Americanlutosmbiephnlargysohildevpsncofriaydvult,jsapeofrmscial,nteodursemobliawyfextndghirwokesandgthircolevy,manAricsetofahmbilewundrthselfiancdrepnc,aswlditurbnghepsoalc.

NETWORK SPACE
SOC ACE
COMM SPACE

WORK ACE
CYBERSPACE
SMARTSPAC
AUGMENTEDSPACE

THE 1990,S WERE ABOUTTHE VIRTUAL:

VIRTUALREALITYVIRTUALWORLDSCYBERSPACEAND OTCOMS
Theimag fnescapintoavrulwordhicwouldeavthpyscialpceusl dominatedh ecad.Thenwdeca bringswthianewmphasionaphysicalp eaugmentdwihelctroni,et-workandcomputer chnolgies:GP;theominpres cofvid suvelianc;"elspac"plicatons;bjeduilgnformatyucelphonrdawyueinthrvc;adgulisemntofargdlecomputr/vidslaynbucpe.

saygo dbye,virtualspace.preparetoliveinaugmentedspace.

66 Graphic Design: The New Basics

Scale is a Verb
To scale a graphic element is to
change its dimensions. Software
makes it easy to scale photographs,
vector graphics, and letterforms.
Changing the scale of an element can
transform its impact on the page or
screen. Be careful, however: it’s easy
to distort an element by scaling it
disproportionately.
Vector graphics are scalable,
meaning that they can be enlarged
or reduced without degrading the
quality of the image. Bitmap images
cannot be enlarged without resulting
in a soft or jaggy image.
In two-dimensional animation,
enlarging a graphic object over
time can create the appearance of a
zoom, as if the object were moving
closer to the screen.

Correct Proportions

Scaling Letterforms If the horizontal and
vertical dimensions of a letter are scaled
unevenly, the resulting form looks distorted.
With vertical scaling, the horizontal elements
become too thick, while vertical elements
get too skinny.

With horizontal scaling, vertical elements
become disproportionately heavy, while
horizontal elements get thin.

Full-Range Type Family Many typefaces
include variations designed with different
proportions. The Helvetica Neue type family
includes light, medium, bold, and black
letters in normal, condensed, and extended
widths. The strokes of each letter appear
uniform. That effect is destroyed if the letters
are unevenly scaled.

Horizontal Scaling

Scaling Images and Objects Uneven scaling
distorts images as well as typefaces.
Imagine if you could scale a physical object,
stretching or squashing it to make it fit into
a particular space. The results are not pretty.
Eric Karnes.

Vertical Scaling

Extreme Heights In the poster at right for
a lecture at a college, designer Paul Sahre
put his typography under severe pressure,
yielding virtually illegible results. (He knew
he had a captive audience.) Paul Sahre.

67 Scale

Texture

If you touch something (it is likely) someone will feel it.
If you feel something (it is likely) someone will be touched.
Rick Valicenti

High-Tech Finger Paint The letterforms in
Rick Valicenti’s Touchy Feely alphabet were
painted on vertical glass and recorded
photographically with a long exposure from
a digital, large-format Hasselblad camera.
Rick Valicenti, Thirst.

Texture is the tactile grain of surfaces
and substances. Textures in our
environment help us understand the
nature of things: rose bushes have
sharp thorns to protect the delicate
flowers they surround; smooth,
paved roads signal safe passage;
thick fog casts a veil on our view.
The textures of design elements
similarly correspond to their visual
function. An elegant, smoothly
patterned surface might adorn the
built interior or printed brochure
of a day spa; a snaggle of barbed
wire could stand as a metaphor for
violence or incarceration.
In design, texture is both
physical and virtual. Textures include
the literal surface employed in the
making of a printed piece or physical
object as well as the optical
appearance of that surface. Paper
can be rough or smooth, fabric can
be nubby or fine, and packaging
material can be glossy or matte.
Physical textures affect how a piece
feels to the hand, but they also affect
how it looks. A smooth or glossy
surface, for example, reflects light
differently than a soft or pebbly one.
Many of the textures that
designers manipulate are not physically experienced by the viewer at
all, but exist as optical effect and
representation. Texture adds detail
to an image, providing an overall
surface quality as well as rewarding
the eye when viewed up close.

Whether setting type or depicting
a tree, the designer uses texture
to establish a mood, reinforce a
point of view, or convey a sense of
physical presence. A body of text
set in Garamond italic will have
a delicately irregular appearance,
while a text set in Univers roman
will appear optically smooth with
even tonality. Likewise, a smoothly
drawn vector illustration will have
a different feel from an image taken
with a camera or created with code.
As in life, the beauty of texture
in design often lies in its poignant
juxtaposition or contrast: prickly/soft,
sticky/dry, fuzzy/smooth, and so on.
By placing one texture in relation to
its opposite, or a smart counterpart,
the designer can amplify the unique
formal properties of each one.
This chapter presents a wide
spectrum of textures generated by
hand, camera, computer, and code.
They are abstract and concrete, and
they have been captured, configured,
sliced, built, and brushed. They
were chosen to remind us that texture
has a genuine, visceral, wholly
seductive capacity to reel us in and
hold us.

70 Graphic Design: The New Basics

RESEARCH
Concrete Texture
The physical quality resulting from
repeated slicing, burning, marking,
and extracting creates concrete
textural surfaces with robust appeal.
The studies to the right grew out of
a studio exercise where the
computer was prohibited in the
initial stages of concept and formal
development. Turbulence (below),
an alphabet by Rick Valicenti,
similarly evokes a raw physicality.
The alphabet began with vigorous
hand-drawn, looping scribbles that
were then translated into code.

CREATE

DEVELOR
Surface Manipulation The textural
physicality of these type studies artfully
reflects the active processes featured in
the words. The crisscrossing lines of an
artist’s cutting board resemble an urban
street grid. Jonnie Hallman, Graphic Design I.
Bernard Canniffe, faculty.

71 Texture

PROCESE

72 Graphic Design: The New Basics
Hayley Griffin

Grey Haas

Physical and Virtual Texture
This exercise builds connections between
physical and virtual texture (the feel and
look of surfaces). Designers used digital
cameras to capture compelling textures
from the environment. Next, they wrote
descriptive paragraphs about each of
the textures, focusing on their images’
formal characteristics.
Using these descriptive texts as
content, the designers re-created the textures
typographically in Adobe Illustrator,
employing repetition, scale, layers, and
color. Typeface selection was open,
but scale distortion was not permitted.
Graphic Design I. Mike Weikert, faculty.

Tim Mason

O M IJ K
T U VW
Code-Driven Texture The Swiss typographer
Emil Ruder once claimed that vital and
individual typographic rhythms are alien
to machines. The code-driven letterforms
shown here prove otherwise. Generated
in the computer language Processing, these
forms are effervescent, organic, and, indeed,
vital. Yeohyun Ahn, MFA Studio.

73 Texture

ABCDE

On the season premier episode of extreme home makeover, host decided
to start things “bang”. Usually when comes time for the demolishing
the house, volunteers, bring bulldozers, steam shovels plows wrecking

74 Graphic Design: The New Basics

ball, and other equipment. They usually take down the house clear
debris away three hours This time the demolition part took seconds the
surprise pulled out a timer and told stand across the street from house
Everyone counted down from ten When the timer reached zero what
once the house was now a huge ball of fire Simultaneously fire began
lake behind the house marching band started marching down the street
playing music. All the onlookers started singing along they watched the
dynamite exploded house continue to smolder. Fire trucks performed
crowd by releasing spurts of water at the house in time to the music fire
trucks, acrobats did routines on the lifting lowering ladders Everything
seemed to wrap up in ten minutes. The plows moved in remove debris
and things went back to normal for at least an hour. It took an hour for
the explosion blast to effect the tectonic plate located underneath the
home. At approximately 12:35, people in the area experienced a class
four earthquake, a three on the richter scale. It lasted approximately five
Look in thy glass, and tell the face thou viewest Now
is the time that face should form another Whose fresh
repair if now thou not renewest Thou dost beguile
the world, unbless some mother For where is she so
fair whose unear’d womb Disdains the tillage of
thy husbandry Or who is he so fond will be the tomb
Of his self-love, to stop posterity Thou art thy mother’s
glass, and she in thee Calls back the lovely April
of her prime So thou through windows of thine age
shall see Despite of wrinkles this thy golden time But
if thou live remember’d not to be Die single, and
thine image dies with thee Look in thy glass, tell the
face thou viewest Now is the time that face should
renewest Thou dost beguile the world, unbless some
mother For where is she so air whose disdains the

Five Squares Ten Inches All typefaces have
an innate optical texture that results from
the accumulation of attributes such as serifs,
slope, stroke width, and proportion. Those
attributes interact on the page with the
size, tracking, leading, and paragraph style
selected by the designer, yielding an
overall texture.
In this exercise, designers composed
five justified squares of